International Journal of Experimental Spectroscopic Techniques 2019, 4:023
In this paper, the results obtained using a multi-analytical approach for characterization of six potsherds originally attributed to the 4th century BC excavated from Meroatic sites, Sudan were reported. Sort of the minerals and their structural deformation during the production forming process from the raw material used by artisan to ware were performed, in the particular, the maximum heating temperature obtained during burial and operative condition (open or close condition) of the kiln were performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was the completing analysis to estimate the firing temperature from typical thermal reactions in potsherds. Further X-ray Ray Fluorescence, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) were used to analyze the morphology, chemical composition and find subsequent progress of vitrification levels. The XRD results give supportive information obtained from the FT-IR spectra. X-ray diffractometry results have shown the existence of quartz, albite (MER-02, MER-04, MER-06) anatase (MER-03) and manganite (MER-05) minerals. Thus, the mineralogical structure of a potsherds samples has a quite dissimilar composition that could suggest that different source of the raw material utilized for the potsherds production. Clay minerals can be used for re-establishment of previous production conditions. In the present paper TGA, FT-IR and XRD results potsherds are examined and information derived on potsherds technologies regarding raw materials and production conditions is confirmed by SEM observations relating to the extent of vitrification. The temperature at which potsherds were fired differs over range (700-900 °C) depending on the sort of clay used and the kiln existing. The obtained data point out that the investigated potsherds were made from different raw materials and workshops.