Evaluation of the Phenolic Composition and Biological Activities of Six Aqueous Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Seed Extracts Originating from Different Countries: A Comparative Analysis

Published: 2023
Foods 2024, 13
ISBN: 2304-8158


Date seeds, which are the main by-products of date fruit consumption, were shown to possess promising biological activities and health benefits with minimal human use. The present investigation analyzed and compared the phenolic content of six date seed varieties from four different origins (Khudari, Sakai, and Safawi from Saudi Arabia, Majdool from Jordan, Zahdi from Iraq, and Kabkab from Iran). The aqueous extracts were examined for possible antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-tumor potential. Date seed oil was extracted, and fatty acid profiles were compared. The results revealed that date seeds are a rich source of polyphenols, which have been linked to biological activities. Furthermore, the phenolic content seemed highly dependent on the variety, where Kabkab had the highest TPC value (271.2 mg GAE/g DM) while Majdool had the lowest value (63.2 mg GAE/g DM). Antioxidant activities of all varieties were highly correlated with the total phenolic content. The antibacterial investigation demonstrated that the Sakai variety possessed the dominant activity, whereas Majdool showed no activity. The results further indicated the sensitivity of both Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, with a stronger effect against B. cereus, while no effect was observed against Gram-negative strains (Salmonella Typhi and Escherichia coli). All varieties were able to decrease colon and lung cancer cell viability, especially Khudari and Sakai, with stronger effects against colon cancer cells. Analysis of date seed oil showed high oleic acid content, especially in Sakai. The findings suggest that date seeds are promising candidates for future pharmaceutical applications as nutraceuticals to help combat certain illnesses, as well as functional foods and natural additives that boost the nutritional value of food products, increase their shelf lives, and improve the overall health of consumers.